This illustration, created at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by coronaviruses.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update by Dr. Bruce Feinberg

Updated April 2, 2020

It may seem that the Pandemic has been with us since December, but most of us have only just completed the second week of sheltering at home.  My last business trip concluded just three weeks ago on March 8.  Social media abounds with commiseration for the shared experience of running out of Netflix shows to watch, but for some like me that happened months before Covid.  We want to believe that this will be over soon, but such thinking begs a triumph of hope over reason.  Our shared reality is that the pandemic in the US has just begun and we need to be prepared for months of sheltering but not necessarily social isolation.  This doesn’t mean we can’t dream of a resumption of some new form of normalcy, but for that to happen we need modeling that confirms the risk of doing so will not make our shared situation worse.  Such talk of re-opening America for business has generated a great deal of recent conversation which is what I wanted to focus on in today’s update.

America being open for business is a catchy phrase, but in the Covid-19 era its quite complicated.  One way of thinking about the economic engine of the US is to think of the consumers and producers, and one way of measuring them is by age group.  Amazingly the US population, divided into age deciles i.e., <10, 10-19, 20-29, … 70+, reveals the population to be near equal in each decile approx. 40mil.

  • The first two deciles comprise 80 mil Americans, specifically those 19 and younger who have limited direct impact via the purchase or creation of goods or services.
  • The last two deciles (age > 60), also 80mil, have limited contribution to the production of goods and services, but they do consume, especially in hard hit market sectors like travel and leisure, retail,  restaurant and hospitality. Unfortunately, this group has such high risk of devastating health outcomes if infected with Covid-19 that they will not be able to fully participate in an open America until there is a vaccine or its therapeutic equivalent.
  • The remaining middle four deciles (160 mil), half the population, are the core of the economic engine and the group that might re-open America. Unfortunately, many of them have risk factors e.g., diabetes, obesity, chronic disease, smokers, etc., for whom participation may be too risky.  Furthermore, many of this group are already working in market sectors that are not siloed by the pandemic because they are deemed essential or are using telework e.g., healthcare, technology, communication,  e-tail, food production/grocery/drug store, logistics, government (military, police, sanitation), service e.g., electrical, plumbing, HVAC, landscape, construction.
  • Of the remaining population aged 20-60, their personal risk from Covid-19 may not be much worse than influenza in a bad year, but their risk to those who are elderly or compromised may be significant.

All of this begs the question of who will re-open America and how can they mitigate risk effectively?

Mitigating risk requires more data than we currently have and that data requires testing not currently deployed or accessible.  Those who are more than four weeks out from exposure to Covid-19, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, will likely have developed immunity.  Immunity can be proven with blood testing for appropriate IgM antibodies. A five minute blood test by table top analyzer was just approved by the FDA, but projected capacity is only five million tests a year and we’ll need 10-20x that number.

  • If immune, you have no risk of reinfection, but more importantly you can’t transmit.  These folks can engage in the economy with abandon, they can also be on the front line directly engaging with those who are symptomatic with infection or at high risk.  They can even donate plasma that can be used to treat the sickest.
  • Those 20-60 y/o low risk who are not immune, but without active infection as determined by testing for viral RNA by nasal swab, could engage as their risk of serious complications from infection is low.  However, should they become infected they could transmit disease to others who are more vulnerable.  Because of this, these folks need to be tested for active disease often e.g., weekly and, when positive, isolated.

Currently too little time has elapsed to allow for a large segment of the population to be immune but this will change quickly in the coming two to three months.  Hopefully by then we will also have effectively deployed testing for both viral RNA by nasal swab and immune status by blood testing to make re-opening America, for at least a portion of the population, a safe possibility.  When America re-opens for business we should be clear that this is not a return to the old way of doing business.  America during the pandemic may be very different than the America we’ve known, but the America post-Covid is likely to be very different as well.

More thoughts on re-opening America in the two accompanying essays.

Best, Bruce


Updated March 13, 2020

In the week since I last posted about the coronavirus disease, labeled COVID-19, it has landed on our shores. Thousands are likely infected and tens have died. It’s real, it’s here and it will be with us for a while. Information and misinformation about the spread and containment, speculations and accusations about the severity and response, continue to dominate headlines. I will once again try to provide a factual and rational summary of the current knowledge based on my analysis of CDC, WHO, FDA and other reports as well as insights from Infectious disease specialist colleagues.

  1. Name – COVID-19 is the disease caused by the coronavirus strain now dubbed SARS-CoV-2 despite the fact that COVID-19 virus is only 30% homologous with the SARS coronavirus. COVID-19 is not SARS but they are both coronaviruses
  2. Risk – Population tracking studies are beginning to clarify risk groups, and risk directly correlates with age and prior lung disease which includes smoking.  Children < 15 appear to get mild if any symptoms. Young adults similarly get mild flu-like symptoms. Middle-aged adults, in particular male smokers, have more risk of severe consequences. Those over age 70, particularly those with chronic diseases, especially lung disease, may have as much as a 10% mortality risk.  Immunosuppression e.g., cancer treatment, may not significantly increase risk.
  3. Disease Pattern – average time from exposure to symptoms is 5 days, symptom development after 12 days is rare, this is the basis for the 2wk self-quarantine if you’ve been potentially exposed.  Flu-like syndrome (fever, aches, fatigue, dry cough) are the initial symptoms lasting 5-7 days. Shortness of breath, if it develops (20%), does so after day 7 – with a 50% chance of requiring hospital care.
  4. Testing – Among the most limiting factors impacting our current knowledge is the lack of available, rapid and accurate testing.  Why we don’t have testing will be hotly discussed in the coming weeks and months but what’s important to know is that we won’t understand transmission and lethality without adequate population testing.  Experts all hope that testing will be routinely available by 4/1
  5. Treatment – there have been few good-news stories since this crisis broke but one is Remdesivir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is active against RNA viruses like Coronavirus.  It was developed for SARS and Ebola.  Like drugs, for AIDS it lessens viral activity and viral load. It may not be a cure but if the preliminary research is validated, taking Remdesivir at the onset of symptoms may prevent progression to the severe and potentially lethal respiratory disease that emerges in week two of infection.
  6. Containment – 30-second hand scrub is the most effective hand sterilizing technique.  >60% alcohol sanitizers may work, some viruses like coronavirus are membrane-bound (i.e., norovirus is not), >60% alcohol disrupts the membrane and destroys the virus, but studies have not been done so only substitute is you can’t scrub. Clorox wipes, among others, will decontaminate surfaces but the surface must stay wet after wiping for 60sec ( e.g., plane seat/armrest/ tray), do not use on skin.
  7. Transmission – is person to person and infected individuals can transmit before they have symptoms.  Without symptoms, they won’t be coughing in your face so masks don’t help but they may be shaking your hand with a hand that just touched their mouth, eye or nose.  Don’t shake hands, try to keep a reasonable distance (6 ft recommended), wash your hands vigorously and often AND DON’T TOUCH YOUR HANDS TO YOUR FACE.  Kids may not be at risk but they can be a vector for disease transmission, that’s one reason behind school closure.
  8. Understanding infectious disease spread may be scary but we need an eyes-wide-open approach, especially as our business will be critical to our nation’s success in dealing with this crisis.  If no measures were taken to disrupt the spread then every 5 days each infected but asymptomatic person might infect two other people then those folks each infect two others and so on.  If you apply exponential math based on 2000 infected folks in the US today, then there’d 1 million U.S. cases by the end of April; 2 million by May 7; 4 million by May 13; and so on. If only 10% needed hospital care that caseload would overwhelm our healthcare system. That’s why China, South Korea, and Italy essentially moved to national self-quarantine and it worked.  That’s also why leadership today announced a no-travel policy.

Hopefully, testing, containment, and effective anti-viral therapies like Remdesivir will stem the tide of caseloads until we have a vaccine. AND DON’T TOUCH YOUR FACE!

Please see the following article from Vox – How canceled events and self-quarantines save lives, in one chart.

Best, Bruce


Published March 6, 2020

To My WCU listeners,

Like you, the continuously evolving news about Coronavirus (COVID-19) is incredibly unsettling for me, my family and loved ones. I find what I don’t know to be even more unnerving than what I hear and read. I’ve summarized my research to share with those I hold dear to help them confront this moment rationally and with the belief that being informed is being armed. Please share this with your friends and loved ones.

What’s the difference between a viral infection and the flu?

There are hundreds of thousands of viruses that infect nearly all living creatures. Many that infect humans are well-known likes measles, mumps, flu, and the common cold. A virus, like influenza, is not one thing, it’s more like a family of related viruses with each unique member of the family being just one strain of the virus, e.g., each year a new strain of flu requires a new vaccine

Unlike bacteria, which can be treated with antibiotics, viral infections are difficult to treat but they can be prevented with vaccines. If you get exposed to a virus your body’s immune system will keep a memory against it which prevents re-infection.

Vaccines mimic the body’s immune process by creating a memory but without the symptomatic infection. When a new virus emerges, usually because it jumps from an animal host to humans, no prior human exposure means no immunity in humans creating a risk for the virus to spread like wild-fire, which is called a pandemic.

What is COVID-19?

Coronavirus has been known for decades as a cause of the common cold, but in 2003 and again in 2012, two much more serious strains arose by jumping from animals to humans, they were called SARS and MERS. Fortunately, they did not spread wildly and were both quickly contained, but their lethality contributed to the initial panic reaction to the emergence of COVID-19.

The Coronavirus disease that emerged in Wuhan China in late December 2019, now called COVID-19, is such a virus. It is a species of coronavirus that jumped from bats to humans. We still don’t know enough about COVID-19: we don’t know how lethal it really is. The annual flu epidemic has a 0.2% mortality (2 deaths per 1000 infected).  We know that because testing for flu is easy and available. Thus far COVID-19 testing is limited, and only those who are symptomatic and needing healthcare are being tested.

It may be that it is 10 times more lethal than typical flu OR it may be that 9 of every 10 people who get infected get no symptoms or just a cold, aren’t tested, and the mortality rates are overestimated. Lethality is also related to how easily the virus is transmitted. Unfortunately, we now think COVID-19 can be transmitted by infected people before they have symptoms like fever and cough.

Who’s at risk of COVID-19?

We are not all equally at risk. Most deaths have been in the elderly, frail and chronically ill. No reported deaths in children < 15. Since there is no specific treatment, and it may take 6-12 months to develop a vaccine, there are a limited number of things we can do as individuals, as communities, and as nations to limit the spread:

  • quarantine communities where the infection is rampant (that might include travel restrictions, school closures or event cancellations)
  • hand washing (sanitizing) and keeping hands away from your face so the virus doesn’t get into nose, mouth or eyes
  • only wearing a high quality (N95) mask if in contact with those infected/coughing.

It may turn out that COVID-19 is no worse than a bad influenza season. But because this virus is new to humans, and we have so much more to learn, the fluidity of the situation is creating significant unease. As research answers more of the critical questions, I’ll provide updates as needed. Taking these preventative measures from the CDC is recommended.

Best, Bruce